The Monarch Diaries-Adult (Part 3)

A just released Monarch hanging out
A just released Monarch hanging out

My three part series on raising Monarchs.

Preparations for Pupating

Prior to pupating, the cats go on “walk-about”, trying to find the perfect spot to make their chrysalis. In the wild, they can travel up to 15 to 20 feet away in their search. Found in some odd places, the chrysalis might be on fences, flower pots, window ledges, benches, bird houses, siding- just about any structure in your yard or house.

Yes, this caterpillar is searching for a spot to pupate
Yes, this caterpillar has  found a place to pupate and is making a silk “button” to hang from

After crawling around the caterpillar finds the perfect spot to form their silken button that attaches to hang in their prepupal “J”, prior to their last molting. The silk comes from the spinneret on the bottom of the head. After shedding its skin for the last time, the caterpillar stabs a stem into the silk pad to hang. This stem extends from its rear end, called the Cremaster. The beautiful gold dots that adorn the chrysalis are not known to have a function.

The cremaster is black and attaches the pupae to the structure
The Cremaster is black and attaches the pupae to the structure. The pupae on the left was just formed and is still soft, the one on the right has hardened

In the "J" position

For the last skin shed, the caterpillar makes it chrysalis and goes through the “pupa dance”, a process that only takes 3 minutes or less.

Relocating a Chrysalis

Sometimes the cats make a chrysalis in a place that isn’t safe, like on the Milkweed branch that they are eating. In a matter of days when the chrysalis completes the cycle, the Milkweed branch is dead and not sturdy enough to hold the chrysalis. Happening several times in my tomato tower, I relocated the chrysalis using some dental floss. Tying the dental floss around the black Cremaster, I relocated the chrysalis to hang at the top of the enclosure.

Tying a knot around the stem or Cremaster and moving the chrysalis to a sturdy structure enabled this chyrsalis to transform
Tying a knot around the stem or Cremaster and moving the chrysalis to a sturdy structure enabled this chrysalis to transform normally

Using dental floss to hang a chrysalis
Using dental floss to hang a chrysalis

For more information about relocating chrysalises, go to Shady Oak Butterfly Farm. Just remember that you must hang the chrysalis so that it will form normally.

Prior to making a chrysalis, the caterpillar hangs in "J" and the antanae
Prior to making a chrysalis, the caterpillar hangs in “J” and the antennae go limp; This one made a chrysalis on a Milkweed branch and I had to move it

 

Eclosure

To witness Eclosure, the moments surrounding a butterfly’s emergence from its chrysalis, is magical, no matter how many times you observe it.  The only way to do that is to have the chrysalis in captivity, where you can monitor its progress and not miss the miracle of metamorphosis. It is extremely hard to catch this happening in the wild as once it occurs, it only takes about 3 minutes from start to finish.

 I missed this one happening. But it still was clinging to the chrysalis, so it just occurred minutes ago
I missed this one happening. But it still was clinging to the chrysalis, so it just occurred minutes ago

Eclosure normally occurs in mid-morning. You will notice the chrysalis darken after about nine days (typical of females) or ten days (typical of males), right before the butterfly emerges. Immediately prior to this, the chrysalis darkens to almost black. Bright orange wings begin to show through the chrysalis covering.

For a great image of the Monarch chrysalis as it ages and changes color, go to Spica’s World.  

Eclosure is close when the chrysalis turns transparent
Eclosure is close when the chrysalis turns dark and you can see the coloration of the butterfly wings

The excitement builds as you watch and wait for the butterfly to emerge. Typically in early-to mid-morning, the chrysalis’s transparent skin cracks around the head at the bottom. The butterfly pushes it open and drops its abdomen down, still clinging with its legs to the empty shell.

 

When the butterfly first emerges from the chrysalis, it has stubby little wings and a plump body. Fluid from the body pumps into the wings, expanding them to full size in a few minutes. After the wings have fully expanded, the butterfly discharges waste products that have built up during its dormant period. A couple of hours later the wings are dry enough for the butterfly to take its first flight, usually a short one to the nearest tree. As a fully grown adult, it is now ready to mate and to spawn a new generation. You can tell the sex at this time very easily.

A male Monarch with black dots on his wing
A male Monarch with black dots on his wing which contain pheromone sacs that drive the females crazy!

Releasing the butterflies is always bittersweet as this generation that comes of age in September is most likely going to make it to California or Mexico for over-wintering. They have a long journey ahead of them. For more information about their journey, go to The Monarch Diaries, Part 1.

Three Monarchs who just emerged and will be released
Three Monarchs who just emerged and will be released
One of my just released Monarchs clinging on to my hair
One of my just released Monarchs clinging to my hair

If you are interested in learning to tag Monarchs, go to The Butterfly Farm.

Learning to tag with the Monarch Teaching Network
Learning to tag with the Monarch Teaching Network

 

 

 

 

 

The Monarch Diaries-Rearing Monarchs Egg to Adult (Part 1)

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Monarch on Mexican Sunflower

Incredible Journey

Monarchs always amazed me with their unique migration, over 3000 miles in some cases, which seems an impossible task for such a delicate creature. The only butterfly that makes a two-way trip, Monarchs are unique in the animal kingdom. Unable to survive cold winter temperatures, the Monarch has evolved to make this incredible trek to over-winter in warmer climes, such as Mexico and southern California. Using a combination of thermals and air currents, Monarchs sense when it is time to travel and know where to go even though the migrating generation has never been to the distant over-wintering sites.

Primary Monarch overwintering sites
Primary Monarch overwintering sites
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Map from USDA Forest Service

Monarchs travel along one of three major routes and investigators think that a combination of directional aids such as the magnetic pull of the earth and the position of the sun among others guide them. Monarchs can travel between 50-100 miles a day and it can take up to two months to complete their journey. Traveling only by day, Monarchs roost at night high up in trees to rest before warming up in the sun to continue their journey. A distance of 265 miles in one day is the longest recorded distance of a Monarch! A great website to track the migratory happenings of Monarchs and other animals is Journey North. Citizen Scientists record their observations all over North America to show the movements of animals north in the spring and south in the fall in real-time.

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Many teachers include Monarch rearing in their science curriculum in Elementary school but I missed the opportunity in school and wanted to do it myself at home to observe the incredible transformation that these creatures go through. How can such fragile creatures make a 3,000 mile journey to an unknown location and remain there for months, mate and then return to the north to start new progeny?

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Several chrysalises hanging in an enclosure at my house

MonarchTeacherNetwork 

Monarch rearing has been on my “must try” list for several years and a two-day Monarch workshop put on by MonarchTeacherNetwork got me motivated and ready to go. Milkweed growing, enclosure instructions, Monarch activities and games, healthy practices of raising, and release ceremonies were all covered in simple, easy to follow directions with added field trips to meadows full of Milkweed and a butterfly house. After the intense two-day workshop, I felt fully prepared to set up my own Monarch raising operation at home.

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Demonstrating milkweed in water tubes to keep it fresh at Ladew Topiary Gardens with MonarchTeacherNetwork
Showing us how to feed Monarchs JuicyJuice
Showing us how to feed Monarchs JuicyJuice
Different types of Milkweed laden with Monarch eggs were scattered around the room
Different types of Milkweed laden with Monarch eggs were scattered around the room
We each made our own Monarch cage out of tomato cages and tulle
We each made our own Monarch cage out of tomato cages and tulle
We learned how to make a Monarch enclosure for adult Monarchs also
We learned how to make a Monarch enclosure for adult Monarchs out of 2 embroidery hoops, clothespins, and tulle
Spicebush Swallowtail caterpillar-We toured the butterfly house at Ladew Topiary Gardens to see other larval stages of butteerflies
Spicebush Swallowtail caterpillar-We toured the butterfly house at Ladew Topiary Gardens to see other larval stages of butterflies
Practicing tagging Monarchs
Practicing tagging Monarchs
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We went on a meadow hike at Ladew and I photographed this little guy who just molted his skin

After gathering some eggs from the meadow walk at Ladew I was ready to begin. Start with the eggs!

Egg Stage

This is where it all starts-Monarchs mating
This is where it all starts-Monarchs mating

For more information on Monarch Raising, go to Monarch Watch.

The hardest part of raising Monarchs is finding their tiny single creamy-white eggs which are smaller than pin heads. Carrying a portable hand lens on an overcast day makes it a little easier to spot the eggs in the field. If you observe Monarchs swooping in and landing on a Milkweed, there is a good chance that she just laid an egg.

I found this egg on the upper side of a leaf
I found this egg on the upper side of a leaf

Monarchs tend to lay their eggs singly on the underside of freshly grown leaves of Milkweed, hidden from predators and directly on their food supply for best survival rates.

Caterpillars are easy to spot with their big bold stripes: the eggs are much harder to spot
Caterpillars are easy to spot with their big bold stripes: the eggs are much harder to spot

The butterfly glues the egg on the leaf surface so that it adheres even through a rain storm, but predators find the eggs a tasty treat. The first egg for me was hard to find, but subsequent ones much easier once I knew what to look for. The likelihood of a Monarch surviving the egg and larval (caterpillar) stages is less than 10% in the wild. For great tips on finding eggs, go to How to Hunt, Gather, and Protect Monarch Eggs . This site gives great information on where, when and how to look.

Smaller than a pin head, eggs can be tough to spot
Smaller than a pin head, eggs can be tough to spot

After locating an egg, I note what type of Milkweed they were attached to and remove the leaf or branch and add it to my “nursery enclosure”, a small plastic container with holes poked in the top. Taking only 3 to 5 days to hatch, watch your eggs carefully as the caterpillar can emerge, eat their egg shell and will move on to fresher leaves pretty quickly. When the top of the eggs turns dark, hatching is imminent.

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Adding some extra Milkweed leaves will keep the tiny caterpillars busy when they hatch. You could also place tulle or pantyhose over the top to keep any wandering minuscule caterpillars inside. Lining the container with a moistened paper towel makes cleanup of the “frass” or black gooey caterpillar poop easy and adds some moisture to their environment. Once inside the house, air conditioning tends to dry the air out for the caterpillars and a light mist from a spray bottle of water helps. I clean out the plastic container every day as the frass can bring in pathogens that can harm the caterpillars.

Itty bitty caterpillar with black head
Itty bitty caterpillar with black head

After the eggs hatch in about 4 days, the tiny caterpillars are no larger than 1/16 of an inch long. They are delicate and easy to overlook as you handle the Milkweed leaves, so move carefully when you are changing out old for fresh leaves.

Next:  Part 2-Larval Stage and How to Make a Tomato Cage Enclosure